Jewish Education under National Socialism
Of the 400 laws promulgated against the Jews from 1933 to 1939, twenty were directly related to Jewish education and included discrimination against academic staff, pupils and state financing. The Jewish communities of Germany united to combat these enactments and these years became most productive with many publications on diverse subjects. Jewish education was radically reformed to meet the needs of the times: emphasis on Jewish training including sources of Judaism and Hebrew language, transformation of indifferent children to affirmative Jews, preparation for difficulties in the Nazi world and for emigration, such as vocational training. Many parents decided not to enroll their children in German schools and sent them to one of the many Jewish Volksschulen established by the united Jewish Reichsvertretung. The Youth Aliyah movement flourished in the larger cities. In 1937, about 61% of the 38,632 Jewish schoolchildren attended 167 Jewish schools (details provided). After Kristallnacht the situation deteriorated markedly. Many teachers were arrested; Jews attending Aryan schools were expelled and had to be absorbed by the Jewish schools. Only one school in Hamburg continued to receive financial support. In 1939, the Reichsvertretung was forced to dissolve and Jewish education was transferred to the Nazi-controlled Reichsvereinigung, who issued new regulations that are fully listed in the article.